4.01.00 Bulk and Fine Chemicals
4.01.01 Catalytic Oxidation Process: Formaldehyde
4.01.02 Ethanol Blending
4.01.03 Cooling Process by Ethylene Glycol
4.01.04 Autoxidation Process: Hydrogen Peroxide
4.01.05 Sodium Acetate Process
4.01.06 Sodium Dichromate Process
4.01.07 Contact Process: Sulfuric Acid and Oleum
4.02.00 Chlor-Alkali Products
4.03.00 Polymers and Plastics
4.03.01 Phenol Process
4.03.02 Phenolic Resin Process
4.03.03 Styrene Production Process
4.03.04 Polycarbonate Synthesis Process
4.03.05 Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Production Process
4.03.06 Caprolactam Production Process
4.03.07 Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR), Synthetic Latex
4.03.08 Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) Resin Process
4.03.09 Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Green Automotive Tires Production
4.04.00 Fertilizers and Explosives
4.04.01 Ammonium Nitrate Production Process
4.04.02 Nitroglycerine Production Process
4.04.03 Urea-Ammoniumnitrate (UAN) Production Process
4.04.04 Urea Production Process
4.04.05 Nitric Acid Process
4.04.06 Liquid Ammonia / Ammonium Hydroxide Production Process
4.05.00 Fibers and Textiles
4.05.01 Cellulosic Fibers: Cellulose Acetate Fiber Production
4.05.02 Synthetic Fibers: Polyamide (Nylon) Fiber Production
4.05.03 Polyurethane Elastic (Spandex) Fiber Production Process
4.05.04 Textile Sizing Process
4.05.05 Textile Sizing Agents Recovery by Ultrafiltration
4.05.06 Fiberglass Production Process
4.06.00 Other Chemical and Allied Products
4.06.01 Glycerol Evaporation
4.06.02 Automotive Grade Urea Solution Process: AdBlue and DEF
4.06.03 Aviation De-icing Fluid Spraying and Recovery
4.06.04 Wood Timber Treatment: Acetylation Process
4.06.05 Gelatine Evaporation
4.06.06 Detergents Blending (Floor Wax)
4.06.07 Lead Acid Battery Manufacture: Sulfuric Acid
4.07.00 Water Treatment
Formaldehyde, CH2O (systematic name: methanal), is a colorless gas with a characteristic pungent odor. It is a powerful germicide used for sterilizing purposes. It is the simplest aldehyde. Formaldehyde can be obtained from its cyclic trimer trioxane and the polymer paraformaldehyde. It exists in water as hydrate H2C(OH)2. Aqueous solutions of formaldehyde are referred to as formalin. "100%" formalin consists of saturated solution of formaldehyde (this is about 40% by volume or 37% by mass) in water, with a small amount of stabilizer, usually methanol, to limit oxidation and polymerization.
Ref. 4.01.01 Catalytic Oxidation Process: Formaldehyde (pdf)
Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol) is a colorless liquid, which is miscible with water when heat is applied to it. Alcohol has traditionally been manufactured by the fermentation of materials containing starch and sugars. At present, most of the alcohol is made with the catalytic hydration of ethene. Ethanol, an alcohol suitable for human consumption, is widely used as a solvent and for the synthesis of other chemical products. It is also used as a fuel.
Ref. 4.01.02 Ethanol Blending (pdf)
Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless and rather viscous hygroscopic liquid with a sweet flavor.
Ref. 4.01.03 Cooling Process by Ethylene Glycol (pdf)
Hydrogen peroxide is a clear, colorless and slightly viscous liquid.
Ref. 4.01.04 Autoxidation Process: Hydrogen Peroxide (pdf)
Sodium acetate (NaO2C2H3) is a colorless crystalline compound, which is known as anhydrous salt or trihydrate.
Ref. 4.01.05 Sodium Acetate Process (pdf)
Sodium dichromate (Na2Cr2O7 ·2H2O) is used in the manufacturing of chromium metal, magnetic tapes, leather tanning, timber preservation compounds and metal finishing, as well as pigments for the plastic and ceramic industry. Other applications are used as catalysts and corrosion inhibitors, as well as in the oil and detergent industry.
Ref. 4.01.06 Sodium Dichromate Process (pdf)
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is a dense, colorless liquid when at room temperature. It is a very active chemical and is widely used in the preparation of large number of chemicals. This strong inorganic acid is also inexpensive to manufacture. Concentrated sulfuric acid (93-98%) is used in the manufacturing of fertilizers, explosives, dyes and petroleum products. Stronger acids can be made by dissolving sulfur trioxide (SO3) in 98 to 99% acid. Sulfuric acid is widely sold in the form of various solutions of H2SO4 in water or of SO3 in H2SO4. The latter mixture is called fuming sulfuric acid or oleum. Its marketing is based on the percentage of SO3 present.
Ref. 4.01.07 Contact Process: Sulfuric Acid and Oleum (pdf)
Sodium hydroxide, caustic soda, NaOH, is a white, translucent and hygroscopic solid, which forms a strong alkaline solution with water.
Ref. 4.02.01 Chlor-Alkali Process: Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), Brine (NaCl), Hydrochloric Acid (HCl), Sodium Hypochlorite (NaClO) (pdf)
Sodium chloride (NaCl), or common table salt, is a water soluble and colorless crystalline solid. The solution of dissolved salt in water is called brine. Sodium chloride occurs as rock salt in nature, in natural brines, such as sea water. Rock salt deposits are mainly located in the USA. The largest use of salt (in the form of brine) is in the electrolytic production of chlorine. In food industry, salt is used as a food flavouring agent, preservative and color developer.
Ref. 4.02.02 Salt Production (Sulfate in Brine) (pdf)
Phenol (C6H5OH) is a white, crystalline mass. It has a distinctive sweet, tarry odor and a burning taste.
Ref. 4.03.01 Phenol Process (pdf)
Phenolic resins are formed by reacting phenol and formaldehyde. In the basic process, where a high ratio of formaldehyde to phenol is used, the result is a resole phenolic resin (base catalyst). When using an acid catalyst combined with a predominance of phenol, the result is a novolak phenolic resin. The production is either a batch or a continuous process.
Ref. 4.03.02 Phenolic Resin Process (pdf)
Styrene is a colorless, aromatic liquid. Nearly all of the commercial styrene is consumed in polymerization and copolymerization. The two process routes that are used for styrene manufacturing are dehydrogenation and coproduction with propylene oxide. Nearly 90% of styrene production utilises dehydrogenation, mainly because of its simplicity and cost-effectiveness.
Ref. 4.03.03 Styrene Production Process (pdf)
Polycarbonates are a group of thermoplastics, which are characterized by their toughness, high softening point and clarity. The most common type of polycarbonate plastic is made by synthesizing bisphenol A (BPA) and phosgene (carbonyl dichloride, COCl2). This polycarbonate is a very durable material. Typical end products are to be found in bottles, windows and in the electronics industry. There are around 10 polycarbonate manufacturers in the world.
Ref. 4.03.04 Polycarbonate Synthesis Process (pdf)
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic is used to produce fibres and yarn, engineering plastics, photo and packing film, beverage and food containers. The majority of the world's PET production is for synthetic fibres (in excess of 60%) with bottle production accounting for around 30% of global demand. In discussing textile applications, PET is generally referred to as simply "polyester" while "PET" is most often used to refer to packaging applications.
Ref. 4.03.05 Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Production Process (pdf)
Caprolactam (C6H11NO) is the raw material for Nylon-6 plastics and fibres engineering. Caprolactam is a chemical compound consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen. It is made by using either cyclohexane or phenol. When caprolactam is at temperatures above its melting point, it becomes a colorless liquid. Cyclohexanone (CH2)5CO, an intermediate of caprolactam, is an organic ketone and has the appearance of clear water.
Ref. 4.03.06 Caprolactam Production Process (pdf)
Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) is commonly considered to be the keystone for industrial and automotive rubber products, such as synthetic latex. Actually, NBR is a complex family of unsaturated acrylonitrile and butadiene copolymers. By selecting an elastomer with the appropriate acrylonitrile content in balance with other properties, the rubber compounder can use NBR for a wide variety of applications requiring oil, fuel and chemical resistance. The uses for NBR in the automotive industry include fuel and oil hoses, seals and grommets, and water handling applications.
Ref. 4.03.07 Synthetic Latex / Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) Production Process (pdf)
Polyphenylene sulphide (PPS) resin is a form of engineering plastic widely used as a material for automobile and electronic parts due to its outstanding chemical resistance, high-temperature stability, good dimensional stability, inherent flame retardance and good electrical properties.
Ref. 4.03.08 Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) Resin Process (pdf)
To improve mechanical and other important properties of natural and synthetic rubbers as well as in tires production extender oil must be used. Extender oils have high level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which have carcinogenic effect on human health and can cause oncological diseases.
Ref. 4.03.09 Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Green Automotive Tires Production (pdf)
The primary industrial use for ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) is in the explosives and fertilizers industries. Ammonium nitrate is also used for the treatment of titanium ores.
Ref. 4.04.01 Ammonium Nitrate Production Process (pdf)
Nitroglycerine is an oily liquid, which is prepared by treating glycerine with a mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acids. The pure nitroglycerine is a colorless, odorless and insoluble in water. It is a very powerful and dangerous explosive, and is never to be used alone due to its sensitivity.
Ref. 4.04.02 Nitroglycerine Production Process (pdf)
Ammonium nitrate (AN) and urea are used as feedstocks in the urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) liquid fertilizers production. Typically, most UAN solutions contain 28, 30 or 32% nitrogen but other customised concentrations (including additional nutrients) are also produced. Most of the large scale UAN production units are integrated into complexes, where either urea, ammonium nitrate or both are produced. The concentrated UAN solution has higher nitrogen content than the standard urea. Liquid UAN is easy to transport and to distribute through pipelines. UAN solutions are manufactured in normal fertilizer plants.
Ref. 4.04.03 Urea-Ammoniumnitrate (UAN) Production Process (pdf)
Urea, NH2CONH2, is a colorless crystal, which dissolves in water. It is a weak alkaline, which forms salts in combination with strong acids. Urea is largely used as a fertilizer and as a non-protein feed supplement for ruminants. It is also used in the urea-formaldehyde resins, plastics, adhesives, coatings, textile agents and ion-exchange resins manufacturing.
Ref. 4.04.04 Urea Production Process (pdf)
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis or spirit of nitre, is highly toxic and corrosive. Approximately 70% of all nitric acid produced is used for the production of ammonium nitrate, which is used in fertilizers. Nitric acid is also a key component in the manufacturing of adipic acid and terephatalic acid. Other applications include explosives, mine leaching and stainless steel pickling.
Ref. 4.04.05 Nitric Acid Process (pdf)
Ammonia (NH3) is a colorless gas, which can easily be dissolved in water. The concentration of ammonia in water is usually 25%. Ammonium hydroxide(NH4OH) is formed during the liquefaction.
Ref. 4.04.06 Liquid Ammonia / Ammonium Hydroxide Production Process (pdf)
There are two types of cellulose-based fibers; regenerated/pure cellulose (such as the fibers from the cupro-ammonium process) and modified cellulose (such as the cellulose acetates and rayon). Acetate fiber is a synthetic fiber, in which the forming substance is cellulose acetate. When no less than 92% of the hydroxyl groups are acetylated, the term triacetate may be used as a generic description for the fiber.
Ref. 4.05.01 Cellulosic Fibers: Cellulose Acetate Fiber Production (pdf)
Nylon 6-6 was the first commercially made all-synthetic fiber. The product resulting from the polymerization reaction of adipic acid and hexamethylene diamines is called Nylon 6-6. The name comes from the molecular chains of the two raw chemical components, containing six carbon atoms each.
Ref. 4.05.02 Synthetic Fibers: Polyamide (Nylon) Fiber Production (pdf)
Spandex is the generic name for synthetic fiber, whose fiber-forming substance is a long chain synthetic polymer. It comprises of at least 85% of segmented polyurethane. Trade names for these fibers are LYCRA (DuPont), DORLOSTAN (Bayer), SPANZELLE (Acordis), VYRENE (US Rubber), etc.
Ref. 4.05.03 Polyurethane Elastic (Spandex) Fiber Production Process (pdf)
The yarn sizing process is essential in reducing breakage and thus avoiding stoppages during weaving. Improved quality, as well as smoother surface finish, will be achieved by sizing the strength and abrasion resistance of the yarn. Different types of water soluble polymers called textile sizing agents/chemicals such as modified starch, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and acrylates are used to protect the yarn. Mixtures of the former mediums and other chemical components are also used.
Ref. 4.05.04 Textile Sizing Process (pdf)
Sizing materials, such as starches and water soluble polymers (polyvinyl alcohol), are used to facilitate the weaving process. The woven cloth is later washed to remove the size, resulting in a dilute solution of the sizing material. Ultrafiltration (UF) can be used to recover the sizing material for reuse and to produce good quality water permeate for discharge or reuse. Wash water containing sizing materials is harmful to the environment. The sizing materials are also expensive and it is possible to reuse the materials several times. This has resulted in a growing interest in UF systems in the textile industry.
Ref. 4.05.05 Textile Sizing Agents Recovery by Ultrafiltration (pdf)
Fiberglass, or glass fiber wool, is a material made from extremely fine short fibers of glass. These fibers are produced by spinning or blowing molten glass (silica).
Ref. 4.05.06 Fiberglass Production Process (pdf)
Glycerol (Glycerin) is a clear, nearly colorless and viscous liquid with a very sweet taste. It occurs in combination with various fatty acids (glycerides) in all animal and vegetable fats and oils. Glycerin is produced organically by a number of different methods and by various synthesizing processes. One method is to react the propene with propenyl chloride, dichlorohydrin or epichlorohydrin to produce glycerine. Another is to use propenyl alcohol. Some glycerin is also obtained through the fermentation of sugars. Commercially glycerin is obtained as a by-product of the soap manufacturing by using saponification (oil splitting). Saponification refers to the chemical reaction between fat and lye, which results in the formation of glycerin and soap.
Ref. 4.06.01 Glycerol Evaporation (pdf)
The automotive urea AdBlue, also known by the generic name Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF), is the registered trademark for AUS32 (Aqueous Urea Solution 32.5%). AdBlue is used as a reagent to reduce the harmful emissions from the internal diesel combustion engines. In order to use AdBlue, the vehicle must be equipped with a SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system. The fluid is passed through the SCR and into the exhaust. As the name AUS32 suggests, AdBlue is made by using urea mixed with demineralised water resulting in a 32.5 % aqueous urea solution. It is colorless, non-toxic and safe to handle.
Ref. 4.06.02 Automotive Grade Urea Solution Process: AdBlue and DEF (pdf)
Aviation de-icing and anti-icing fluids, such as ethylene glycol (EG) or propylene glycol (PG), keep atmospheric ice from accumulating on aircraft’s flying and control surfaces while in flight. The effects of ice accretion on an aircraft can cause loss of control, resulting in catastrophic flight events. De-icing on the ground is usually done by spraying the aircraft with a de-icing fluid. The operational procedures are continually checked and updated by an international group of experts under the auspices of the Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE) G-12 Committee on Aircraft Ground De-icing/Anti-icing. The de-icing fluids must be used with a containment system to capture the used liquid, preventing ground and streams contamination. Airport storm water discharges containing de-icing fluids are the focus of numerous regulatory actions.
Ref. 4.06.03 Aviation De-icing Fluid Spraying and Recovery (pdf)
Acetylated wood timber is rapid growth wood (generally the cheapest wood available), which has been treated to have better dimensional stability, durability, UV resistance and paint retention.
Ref. 4.06.04 Wood Timber Treatment: Acetylation Process (pdf)
Collagen is the main organic component of bone and skin in mammals. Acid and liming process production methods are used to produce gelatine, which is purified protein derived from the selective hydrolysis of collagen. Gelatine is an organic, colloidal protein substance, whose principal value depends on its coagulative, protective and adhesive powers. Gelatines swell in cold water but are insoluble in it. They dissolve in hot water to produce very viscous solutions. Gelatines are manufactured from bones and hides, and are used in different industries: photographic, pharmaceutical and food industries.
Ref. 4.06.05 Gelatine Evaporation (pdf)
Detergents are synthetic and organic cleaning agents, which are liquid-, water- or oil-soluble. Detergents have a wetting-agent and emulsifying properties. Floor waxes, furniture waxes, deodorants and shampoos are typical household detergents, which are usually manufactured with a batch process.
Ref. 4.06.06 Detergents Blending (Floor Wax) (pdf)
Battery manufacturing is the process of producing lead-acid and gel batteries commonly used for automobiles and electric vehicles that need long service periods and durability. Such vehicles are e.g. sweepers, forklifts and cleaning machines. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) activates the lead elements of the lead battery resulting in the power effect. The correct effect can be obtained only with the right acid concentration.
Ref. 4.06.07 Lead Acid Battery manufacture (pdf)
Pure water treatment is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from raw water. Water treatment by chemical precipitation is a complex process. It starts with adding PACl and NaOH into raw water. PACl precipitates in big volumetric flocs which absorb suspended pollutants in the raw water. In order to keep the flocculation process smooth, PACl concentration must be constantly monitored which is possible with K-Patents' refractometer.
Ref. 4.07.01 Pure Water Treatment by Chemical Precipitation (pdf)
Ammonia can be present in underground water as an impurity. It is undesirable in water because ultimately it gets converted into nitrites and nitrates which cause lack of vitamin and if combined with other components can cause cancer. Moreover, elevated ammonia concentration can create favourable conditions for intensive growth of aquatic organisms, including algae, which leads to deterioration of commodity water quality, especially its clarity, smell, taste and bacterium contamination. Ammonia is tripped away from the process by turning it into ammonium sulfate. K-Patents refractometer PR-23-M is measuring the ammonium sulfate concentration in-line. If the value is correct, ammonium sulfate can be stored for further use, if not, the product is further recycled.
Ref. 4.07.02 Ammonia Removal in Water Treatment (pdf)
Excess organics, or Total Organic Carbon Content (TOC), e.g. alcohols, proteins, sugars, fats, etc. in various effluent streams in the corn sweetener and beer brewing industries can incur fines and penalties. In severe cases the plant can even be closed. As these effluent streams typically contain high levels of TOC (up to 10,000 PPM) the Refractive Index technique has proven to be a very successful measurement method for this purpose.
Ref. 4.07.03 Total Organic Content (TOC) Monitoring in Effluent (pdf)
Canning of foods and beverages is currently considered to be a workhorse of food preservation and storage. Thus, it is very important to keep up with protective properties that enhance the performance of cans. In can coating technologies a wash coat is used to provide high chemical resistance, hardness, flexibility and gloss of can caps and closures.
Ref. 4.08.00 Can Coating (pdf)
Polyethylene fiber is known for its high strength and durability features. The material is used in a variety of applications, e.g., Tyvek® HouseWrap, vehicle covers, envelopes, medical and industrial packaging, and as protective apparel. The sheet is made by spinning extremely fine high-density polyethylene fibers fused together to produce a strong uniform web. Inside the sheet antistatic agent is applied. Before the antistatic agent is applied, it must be diluted to 1.5 or 2.5 solution. The required solution concentration is controlled using K-Patents Sanitary Compact Refractometer PR-23-AC.
Ref. 4.10.00 Polyethylene Fiber Antistatic Agent (pdf)
K-Patents has released a new application note on bulk liquid chemicals identification in loading and unloading operations. Chemical plants may deal with multiple unloading stations, thus, fast and reliable interface detection is necessary for product identification and safe unloading operation. Combining an interface detection device with automatic controls can minimize transmix of products, reduce waste, reduce the filling/ unloading times, decrease safety risks, reduce sampling and minimize operator errors.
Ref. 4.11.00 Chemicals Identification (pdf)